Developmental course of ADHD symptoms in elementary students with or without a comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder based on parent and teacher report: The moderating effect of gender
Lapalme M, Déry M, *Dubé M, Lemieux A. (2018). Developmental Course of ADHD Symptoms Based on Multirater Report in Girls and Boys With or Without a Disruptive Behavior Disorder. Journal on Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. 26(2): 106-118.
The developmental course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity) from childhood to adolescence was described and compared based on parent and teacher report as a function of co-occurring conduct disorder/oppositional defiant disorder (CD/ODD) over 6 years. The moderating effect of gender was investigated. Participants were 291 children (6–13 years old; 79 girls) with ADHD: 91 with ADHD only and 200 with ADHD+CD/ODD. At study entry, boys and girls in the ADHD+CD/ODD group presented significantly more hyperactivity symptoms based on parent report and more impulsivity symptoms based on teacher report than did those in the ADHD-only group. ADHD symptoms, however, diminished on average over time in both groups, according to both parent and teacher report. However, as children in the ADHD+CD/ODD group, particularly girls, presented more symptoms at study entry, they tended to remain above the diagnostic threshold 6 years later. This suggests an association exists between co-occurring CD/ODD and ADHD persistence.