Verlaan P, *Boutin S, Denault AS, Déry M. (2016). Indirect aggression trajectories and interpersonal risk factors among girls and boys in elementary schools. International Journal on School Climate and Violence Prevention. 1: 96-129.
Latent growth mixture modeling was used to identify discrete patterns of indirect and physical aggression during four consecutive elementary school years in a sample of 755 students (46.8% girls; M age 8.4 years at T1). Greater teacher-student conflits and deviant peer associations at T1 predicted membership in the higher indirect and physical aggression trajectories, whereas peer rejection predicted membership in the higher physical aggression trajectories. Results were similar for boys and girls. These findings strongly suggest that the factors involved in the development of indirect and physical aggression in elementary school are more similar than gender specific.