Milot-Lapointe F, Le Corff Y, Savard R. (2020). Factor structure of the short version of the Working alliance Inventory and its longitudinal measurement invariance across individual career counseling sessions. Journal of Career Assessment.
The aim of the present study was 2-fold: (a) to examine the factor structure of the short version of the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI-S) in clients who were engaged in individual career counseling sessions and (b) to investigate whether the factor structure of the WAI-S is invariant across the first and the third career counseling sessions. A total of 283 clients seeking individual career counseling completed the WAI-S at the end of the first session (T1). Of the 283 clients, 217 also completed the WAI-S at the end of the third session (T2). Confirmatory factor analyses were performed to assess the fit of one-factor, two-factor, three-factor, and bilevel hierarchical models. The results showed that the three-factor and the bilevel hierarchical models had the best fit to the data at both T1 and T2. The factor structure of the WAI-S was invariant across the first and the third career counseling sessions. Results suggest that researchers and clinicians can use the WAI-S knowing that it adequately measures Bordin’s theoretical model of working alliance in the specific context of individual career counseling.