Milot-Lapointe F, Le Corff Y, Arifoulline N. (2021). A meta-analytic investigation of the association between working alliance and outcomes of individual career counseling. Journal of Career Assessment.
This article reports on the results of the first meta-analysis of the association between working alliance and outcomes of individual career counseling. This random-effects meta-analysis included 18 published and unpublished studies that produced a weighted mean effect size of r = .42. This effect size was heterogeneous across studies. Separate meta-analyses were conducted for several types of outcomes: Career outcomes, mental health outcomes, and client-perceived quality of the intervention. Average effect sizes for the association between working alliance and types of outcomes were .28, .18 and .62, respectively. Moderator analyses indicated that the overall mean effect size (r =.42) varied in a large proportion as a function of the type of outcomes and the time of assessment of working alliance (first session, mid or at termination of the counseling service). Our results confirm that working alliance is associated to career counseling effectiveness and suggest that career counselors should emphasize on the working alliance during the career counseling process. In conclusion, this article provides suggestions for practice in individual career counseling and avenues of research on working alliance in this context.